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Transportation contributes 29% of total UK carnbon dioxide emissions (CO2)
(Source: DFT Transport Trends, 2011)
Reducing our carbon emission makes sense environmentally and commercially especially where energy use reduction is achieved, it delivers immediate cost saving and environmental benefits. As a business reducing our carbon emission is important for our long-term finances, risk management, reputation and environmental responsibility.
Our Performance on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions 2011
In 2011, National Express Group has seen a reduction in our overall carbon emission (GHG). 2010 we emitted 518,005 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) and in 2011 we emitted 506,528 (tCO2e), saving approximately 11,477 tCO2e, a reduction of 2.2% GHG across the group.
National Express Group Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Activity for 2011
Scope 1, 2 and 3 GHG emissions of National Express Group by WBC SD/ WRI for 2010 and 2011
||tCO2e (2010)||tCO2e (2011)|
Our CO2 emissions for scope 1, 2 and 3
From the bar graph above there is a slight increase in scope 3 due to change in the reporting category of scope 2 and scope 3 by DEFRA. Accounting of loss of energy in transmission was moved from scope 2 to scope 3 and hence the slight increase in scope 3.
Measured Carbon Emissions
World business council for sustainable development and world resource institute (WBC SD/ WRI), they produce a greenhouse gas protocol accounting and reporting standard measured in scope I, 2 and 3.
Scope 1: include direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sources owned and controlled by National Express such as fossil fuel and natural gas combustions and company owned vehicles.
Scope 2: accounts for GHG emissions from the generation of purchased electricity, heat and steam generated off site.
Scope 3: includes all other indirect emissions such as waste disposal, business travel and staff commuting.
We continue to reduce our total emission in the UK (Fig.3) over the reporting period. Whilst a proportion of the total reduction is due to loss of rail franchise further significant reductions have been achieved due to the initiatives we have invested in. We saw a total reduction of 2.2% from our coaches, buses, rail and business travel.
Total Greenhouse Gas emissions from UK operations (tCO2e) for the period of 2004 - 2011
It is important to compare emissions per passenger travelling in order to assess the performance and impacts of different mode of transportation on carbon emission. (See fig.4)
Emissions per passenger kilometre for the key operating companies
Our figures show that coach is the greener way to travel as it uses the least amount of energy and produces the lowest carbon emission per passenger kilometre compared to our other transportation mode and significant better than an average journey in a car (emission for average car 151.0gCO2e/ pass.km, source: DEFRA/DECC’s Greenhouse Gas conversion factor, 2011).
Our trains are not far behind the coach and significantly better than the National rail average (65.1gCO2e/ pass.km, source: DEFRA/DECC, 2011). This is followed by our buses which operate in congested cities and towns also significant better than industrial average, thus illustrating the benefits of our services.
Putting these statistics into context using one of our coach services for example will take approximately 20 cars off the road saving approximately 3020gCO2e had those cars been on the road on an average journey.
What has National Express done to reduce its emissions?
We have embraced various distinct ways to tackle its emissions by working on:
We have fitted devices for recording driver activity in our UK and Spanish fleets. These take automatic measurements of speed and distance of the vehicle for management, reporting and training. This device is called Traffilog in UK and Telemetrics in Spain. Combined with focussed training we educated our driver's behaviour to provide a smooth course of journey for our customers and these has helped to reduce driving irregularities and decrease fuel consumption both has helped to lower our carbon emissions on our coach fleets. The implementation of the device in our Coach fleet started in August 2010 and the process was complete by April 2011. Since its installation combined with our driver’s eco-driving, we have achieved a 2.8MPG (mile per gallon) reduction per journey in the UK and a reduction of 2.2MPG in our Spain fleet approximately 2% reductions.
National Express invested in lower carbon fuels using our Spanish network (ALSA) as a pilot study, where we use Biodiesel in some of our fleet. In 2010 we extended the use of biodiesel to 30% of the total fleet and by the end of 2010, we had achieved a reduction in our carbon emissions by 18,478.114 kg. CO2e.
Our main reason of maximising the use of biofuel is to reduce our Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and environmental impacts and also diversify our energy sources to reduce the current dependency on oil.
Success was also recorded in the introduction of electric and Hybrid buses in Spain and on some of our West Midland bus routes. By using electric vehicles we avoid emitting the equivalent of 30-34 kg of CO2 everyday and we also achieved a 30% reduction in our mile per gallon (MPG).
We have further invested £8.8million in the purchase of 31 brand new hybrid buses to expand the size of our green bus fleet which will further reduce our carbon emissions, protect and improve the air quality of our local environment
The National Express UK coach fleets now meet the latest Euro emissions standards, by the introduction of Euro 5 and Euro 4 vehicles. They have built in technology for pollution abatement as standard. This reduces harmful exhaust pollutants and as a result emits less carbon dioxide (CO2), particulates greatly improving air quality.
Our C2C train franchise was the first mainline train operator in the UK to introduce regenerative braking systems which makes our trains greener while saving energy. The device generates electricity when the driver applies the brake, recycling the power back into driving the train.
As a result we have achieved a saving of up to 20% in our train energy usage.
We ran an energy saving trial in our National Express West Midlands business during 2011. On a like for like basis energy use decreased by 12% and 11% respectively for electric and gas (see table below). In the Coventry garage alone we saw a cumulative saving on electric for 104846.01 kWh which is a 14.07% reduction of its energy usage. This was achieved using Power Perfector Voltage optimisation equipment.
We believe the total reduction was as a result of a number of investments in energy management. These include fitting photovoltaic solar panels in some of our bus and coach stations, installing voltage power optimisation equipment, and introducing motion sensitive lighting in areas of our bus and coach station.
We are working on rolling out the same principles used in National Express West Midlands to our other coach stations, depots, offices and travel shops across our business, improving our metering efficiency, heating systems and lighting. We are also running a trial to install LED (light emitting diode) efficient lighting at Birmingham Coach Station which if successful will also be rolled out.
We have also registered with Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) and we are working to get a carbon saver certificate on all our sites.
Alongside these schemes, National Express will be involving, training and encouraging its employees to become more environmental friendly in their behaviour, if we are to meet our target and further improve our energy efficiency and carbon emission.
We have set ourselves a target of 10% reduction by 2013 across all our operational sites and premises.
Fig.5 shows the Gas and Electric Consumption of National Express West Midlands
Thinking ahead we are working with Aston University in terms of development of new engine technology and fuel types to achieve further improvement on our carbon emissions across all our network and services. We are looking to develop trials of hydrogen-based solutions and improve the driver information system and training. We have also set a target of 5% improvement on fuel efficiency for the UK coach and bus fleets, 3% for Spain and 3% for our trains by the end of 2013. We are currently establishing targets of our US business.